UN Report Confirms Prevalence of War Economy in Centrafrican Republic

Posted by Nathalia Dukhan on Feb 13, 2017  | Enough Project

En Français, plongez ici !

In its final report for 2016 released in December, the U.N. Security Council’s Panel of Experts on the Central African Republic (CAR) confirmed that the trafficking of arms and natural resources continues to be central in the perpetuation of violence in the country.

Recent fratricidal fighting between ex-Séléka armed factions has been motivated by a competition over the control of revenues sources, mainly diamonds and gold, and the control of strategic roads. Panel coordinator Ruben de Koning, indicated that “highly lucrative ventures enable FPRC to maintain confrontational posture vis-à-vis the government.” Despite repeated warnings that reveal the economic motives behind the violence, CAR’s government and the international community have not taken appropriate measures.

Trafficking of arms and natural resources by armed groups

Since August 2016, violence has grown more severe and widespread in CAR. The Panel observed that the renewed violence within ex-Séléka factions and between Anti-Balaka and ex-Séléka appeared to be localized and largely driven by internal power struggles and competition over control of territory.

State authorities have been continuously challenged by the various armed factions, particularly the Front Populaire pour la Renaissance de la Centrafrique (FPRC), Mouvement Patriotique pour la Centrafrique (MPC), Rassemblement Patriotique pour le Renouveau de la Centrafrique (RPRC), Union pour la Paix en Centrafrique (UPC), and Retour, Réclamation et Rehabilitation (3R). These armed groups have set up a de facto authority and a parallel administration extorting the population, detaining people illegally, levying taxes, and imposing curfews and checkpoints. The UPC controls arms trafficking routes coming in to the country from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the FPRC controls routes coming in from Chad and Sudan. In CAR’s eastern region, the Lord’s Resistance Army has continued “the looting of gold, diamonds and money and the poaching of elephants for their ivory.”

In areas controlled by Anti-Balaka, particularly in the eastern part of the capital Bangui, militias have maintained illegal checkpoints in order to tax fishers and traditional boats transporting goods and passengers on the Oubangui River. The Panel noted that “such illegal taxation drives up the prices of goods and is associated with physical assaults on, and the torture and raping of, passengers.” In CAR’s west, “…[A]nti-[B]alaka members seek to extort money from (Muslim) returnees by imposing their services as security providers.”

Leaders of armed groups’ business deals

Former President Michel Djotodia’s business interests in Bangui: In its 2015 final report, the Panel cited the role of Mahamat Nour Binyamine, reportedly in charge of collecting rent for buildings and houses owned by former President Djotodia, who was president of FPRC until the recent ex-Séléka General Assembly in Bria. In July 2016, Binyamine reportedly brokered the sale of a plot of land in Bangui belonging to Djotodia to a private contractor. On August 29, the contractor wired a total of FCFA 25 million ($50,000) to Binyamine’s account. The Panel noted that “Djotodia’s assets in the United States have, however, been frozen since 13 May 2014, when he was sanctioned by the United States, and Binyamine, as an American resident, could be transacting or holding funds on behalf of Djotodia in the United States.”

Abdoulaye Hissene’s gold business: The Panel revealed that Abdoulaye Hissene, one of the key leaders of the FPRC and former collector of diamonds and gold, resumed his business activities when he was Minister Councilor on Youth and Sports under former President Catherine Samba Panza. In September 2014, Hissene reportedly concluded a sale and purchase agreement with an Indian investor for 300 kilograms (661 pounds) of gold for a total of $9.9 million. The Panel stated that it had no evidence that the gold was delivered but it highlighted that “Hissene had no mineral export license, either as a cooperative or a buying house, and did not declare taking out the sample for assaying.”

An Anti-Balaka leader’s artisanal mining license: Nice Demowance, who remains under the command of Maxim Mokom, a prominent Anti-Balaka leader, renewed his artisanal mining license. The Panel noted that Demowance is still in command in the Amada Gaza sub-prefecture “where combat between [A]nti-[B]alaka and armed Fulani continues, including over mine sites.”

Licit and illicit diamond trade

In September 2016, the Kimberley Process (KP) declared the sub-prefectures of Boda, Carnot, and Nola to be compliant zones. The KP considered there to be sufficient presence of state authority, free movement of people and goods, and no systematic presence of armed groups. Since the decision to partially lift the suspension of diamonds exports, three parcels have been exported, originating from mine sites within the sub-prefecture of Berberati, which was the first to be declared compliant in March 2016.

The illicit diamond trade, however, has continued to flourish. Cameroon continues to be the main diamond trading hub for trafficked diamonds from CAR’s western region. From areas controlled by armed groups in the east like Bria, hardly any stone officially reaches the export companies in Bangui. Yet, many dealers are registered here, selling some diamonds to each other to appear legitimate but taking or selling the larger share fraudulently abroad. The Panel recommends their licenses be withdrawn because this practice goes against the mining code.

Oil exploration

In its 2016 mid-term report, the Panel revealed a financial deal between a company called FIT Protection (FIT-P) and the armed group MPC. FIT-P has allegedly been recruiting ex-Séléka security agents to protect investment and oil exploration undertaken by the Chinese company, PTIAL International Petroleum. De Koning has said that, “This company engaged FPRC leaders, who are still part of the rebellion, and diverted wages from guards hired from their ranks.” He further states that “while President Touadera has in the media questioned the security arrangement, the current defense minister is yet to revoke the company’s authorization to carry arms his predecessor issued in April last year.”

Economic predation is at the heart of the system of permanent instability in CAR. The free circulation of arms and ammunitions has allowed all sorts of trafficking and fueled tensions and competition between armed groups. Leaders of armed groups can also conduct business deals in total impunity. Recognizing economic predation as a key motive for the violence is crucial.

  • Read the full U.N. Panel of Experts report.


  • Click here to read Enough’s report, “The Bangui Carousel: How the recycling of political elites reinforces instability and violence in the Central African Republic.”

92 Comments on UN Report Confirms Prevalence of War Economy in Centrafrican Republic

  1. I think this is one of the most important information for me.
    And i’m glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things, The website style is great, the articles is
    really great : D. Good job, cheers

  2. Amazing! This blog looks exactly like my old one! It’s on a
    totally different subject but it has pretty much the same layout and
    design. Superb choice of colors!

  3. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot
    about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that
    you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a bit, but instead of that, this
    is excellent blog. A fantastic read. I will definitely
    be back.

  4. I have to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this site.
    I am hoping to view the same high-grade content from you later on as
    well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to
    get my very own website now 😉

  5. Excellent website you have here but I was wanting to know if you knew of any community forums that cover the same topics discussed
    in this article? I’d really love to be a part of community where I can get responses from other knowledgeable individuals that share the same interest.
    If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Bless you!

  6. What’s Going down i’m new to this, I stumbled upon this I have discovered It positively helpful
    and it has helped me out loads. I’m hoping to give a contribution & help different users like
    its aided me. Great job.

  7. That is really attention-grabbing, You’re an excessively
    skilled blogger. I have joined your feed and
    stay up for in search of more of your excellent post.
    Also, I have shared your web site in my social networks

  8. Greate pieces. Keep writing such kind of information on your site.
    Im really impressed by it.
    Hi there, You have done an excellent job. I’ll certainly digg it and individually suggest
    to my friends. I am sure they’ll be benefited from this website.

  9. We absolutely love your blog and find the majority of your
    post’s to be just what I’m looking for. Would you offer guest writers to write content available for you?
    I wouldn’t mind writing a post or elaborating on many of the subjects you write concerning here.

    Again, awesome weblog!

  10. Hey just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The words in your content seem to
    be running off the screen in Chrome. I’m not
    sure if this is a format issue or something to do
    with browser compatibility but I thought I’d post to let you know.
    The design look great though! Hope you get the issue fixed soon.

  11. I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put in penning this website.

    I really hope to view the same high-grade content from you later on as well.

    In truth, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own site now 😉

  12. Hello this is kind of of off topic but I was wanting to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.

    I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding experience so I
    wanted to get advice from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!

  13. Howdy! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after going through many of the
    articles I realized it’s new to me. Anyhow, I’m certainly delighted I stumbled upon it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back regularly!

  14. What i do not understood is actually how you are now not really much more well-preferred
    than you may be right now. You are very intelligent.
    You know therefore significantly on the subject of this
    topic, produced me in my view believe it from a lot of varied angles.
    Its like women and men don’t seem to be interested
    unless it is something to accomplish with Girl gaga!
    Your personal stuffs nice. At all times maintain it up!

  15. We’re a group of volunteers and opening a brand new scheme in our community.
    Your website offered us with helpful info to work on. You have performed
    an impressive task and our whole community shall be thankful to you.

  16. Thanks for any other great article. The place else may anybody get that kind of info in such a perfect
    method of writing? I have a presentation subsequent week, and I am
    on the search for such information.

  17. What’s up everybody, here every person is sharing such knowledge,
    so it’s nice to read this blog, and I used to go to see this web site daily.

  18. Hello my loved one! I wish to say that this post is
    awesome, great written and come with almost all vital infos.
    I would like to peer more posts like this .

  19. Interesting blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere?
    A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements would really make my blog stand out.
    Please let me know where you got your theme. Thanks

  20. Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long
    as I provide credit and sources back to your
    site? My blog site is in the very same niche as yours and my users would genuinely benefit from a lot
    of the information you present here. Please let me know if this ok with you.
    Thank you!

  21. Hmm it looks like your site ate my first comment (it was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum
    it up what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.
    I as well am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to the whole thing.
    Do you have any points for inexperienced blog writers?
    I’d genuinely appreciate it.

  22. you are in point of fact a good webmaster. The web site loading
    pace is incredible. It sort of feels that you
    are doing any distinctive trick. Also, The contents are masterwork.
    you have done a excellent process in this topic!

  23. Very good website you have here but I was wanting to know if you knew of any message boards that cover the same topics talked about here?
    I’d really love to be a part of online community where I can get
    advice from other experienced individuals that share the
    same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me
    know. Many thanks!

  24. Wow! This blog looks exactly like my old one!
    It’s on a completely different subject but it has pretty much the same page layout and design. Great choice of colors!

  25. I’ll immediately grasp your rss feed as I can’t find your e-mail subscription link or newsletter service.
    Do you’ve any? Kindly allow me recognise in order that I may just subscribe.

  26. My partner and I stumbled over here by a different page
    and thought I should check things out. I like what I see so now i am
    following you. Look forward to going over your web page repeatedly.

  27. Greetings from Colorado! I’m bored to death at
    work so I decided to check out your website
    on my iphone during lunch break. I love the knowledge you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home.
    I’m amazed at how quick your blog loaded on my cell phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, great blog!

  28. Hey there! I realize this is sort of off-topic however I needed to ask.
    Does building a well-established blog like yours take
    a massive amount work? I’m brand new to running a blog however I do write in my journal on a daily
    basis. I’d like to start a blog so I can share my experience
    and views online. Please let me know if you have any kind of suggestions or tips
    for brand new aspiring blog owners. Appreciate it!

  29. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you, However I am having difficulties with your
    RSS. I don’t understand why I can’t subscribe to it. Is there anyone else
    having identical RSS problems? Anybody who knows the solution will you kindly respond?

  30. Hi there, You have done an excellent job. I will certainly digg it
    and personally recommend to my friends. I’m confident they’ll be benefited from this web site.

  31. Amazing blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it
    from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements would really make my blog stand out.
    Please let me know where you got your theme. Thanks

  32. Wow, superb blog layout! How long have you
    been running a blog for? you made blogging glance easy. The total glance
    of your website is great, let alone the content!

  33. Greetings! Very useful advice in this particular post!
    It’s the little changes that make the greatest
    changes. Many thanks for sharing!

  34. I do not even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was
    good. I do not know who you are but certainly you’re going to a famous blogger if you are not already 😉 Cheers!

  35. I always used to read piece of writing in news papers but now as I am a user of internet therefore from now I am using net for content, thanks to web.

  36. My brother suggested I would possibly like this website. He was totally right.
    This put up truly made my day. You can not
    consider just how a lot time I had spent for this
    information! Thanks!

  37. Hey! This is kind of off topic but I need some guidance
    from an established blog. Is it very hard to set up your own blog?

    I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty fast.
    I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure where to begin. Do you have any ideas
    or suggestions? Cheers

  38. With havin so much written content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright infringement?
    My website has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either created myself or outsourced but it seems a lot of it is popping
    it up all over the internet without my agreement.

    Do you know any solutions to help prevent content from being stolen? I’d genuinely appreciate it.

  39. Good post. I learn something new and challenging on sites
    I stumbleupon on a daily basis. It’s always helpful to read through
    content from other writers and practice a little something from their sites.

  40. We stumbled over here from a different website and thought I might as well check things out.
    I like what I see so i am just following you. Look forward to finding
    out about your web page for a second time.

  41. I’ve been exploring for a bit for any high-quality articles or weblog posts on this kind of house .
    Exploring in Yahoo I eventually stumbled
    upon this web site. Reading this info So i’m glad to show that I’ve
    an incredibly good uncanny feeling I found out exactly what I needed.

    I so much unquestionably will make certain to don?t fail to remember this website and give it a look on a constant basis.

  42. It’s really a great and helpful piece of information. I am glad that you
    simply shared this helpful information with us.
    Please keep us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

  43. I think this is among the most significant info for me. And i’m glad reading your
    article. But wanna remark on few general things, The web site style is wonderful, the articles is really nice : D.
    Good job, cheers

  44. I was suggested this blog via my cousin. I am now not
    positive whether or not this put up is written by way of him as nobody else recognise such targeted about my difficulty.

    You’re amazing! Thank you!

  45. Have you ever thought about adding a little bit more than just your articles?
    I mean, what you say is important and all. Nevertheless think about if
    you added some great images or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”!
    Your content is excellent but with images and videos, this site could definitely be one of the greatest in its niche.
    Great blog!

  46. I have been surfing on-line more than 3 hours as of
    late, yet I by no means discovered any fascinating article like yours.
    It is lovely value sufficient for me. In my view, if all website owners
    and bloggers made just right content material as you did, the web
    might be a lot more helpful than ever before.

  47. We are a bunch of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community.
    Your web site provided us with useful information to
    work on. You have done an impressive activity and
    our entire community will likely be thankful to you.

  48. Right here is the perfect webpage for anyone who hopes to
    understand this topic. You realize so much its almost tough to
    argue with you (not that I really will need to…HaHa).
    You certainly put a fresh spin on a subject which
    has been written about for a long time. Great stuff, just wonderful!

  49. What’s Taking place i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I’ve discovered It absolutely helpful and it has aided me
    out loads. I’m hoping to give a contribution & assist other users like its helped me.
    Good job.

  50. Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It truly useful & it helped
    me out a lot. I hope to give something back and help others like you helped me.

  51. I will immediately grab your rss as I can’t find your email subscription link or newsletter service.
    Do you’ve any? Kindly permit me know in order that I
    could subscribe. Thanks.

  52. Hi, Neat post. There’s a problem along with your site in internet explorer, might check this?

    IE still is the marketplace leader and a huge part of other folks will
    leave out your magnificent writing because of this problem.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.