Civilians in the Central African Republic remain at risk of mass atrocity crimes committed by “anti-balaka” militias, ex-Séléka rebels and other armed groups.
Touadéra, on 14 February 2016, civilians in the Central African Republic (CAR) remain at risk of mass atrocity crimes as armed groups continue to perpetrate sporadic attacks on villages, displacement sites, humanitarian workers, and peacekeepers from the UN Mission in CAR (MINUSCA).
Hostilities between factions of the ex-Séléka, a predominantly Muslim rebel group, have escalated in the center of the country, particularly near Bambari and Kaga-Bandoro. On 16 and 17 September clashes between ex-Séléka members and anti-balaka militias in Kaga-Bandoro and surrounding villages resulted in at least 40 people killed and an estimated 3,200 displaced. On 12 October several hundred ex-Séléka attacked a displacement camp and secondary school in Kaga-Bandoro, before UN peacekeepers repelled them. At least 30 people were killed during the violence.
The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) released a communiqué on 29 September denouncing recent attacks on humanitarian workers in CAR. Following attacks on 12 October the International Rescue Committee announced it would withdraw from the Kaga-Bandoro area.
Armed men also attacked a displacement site in Ngakobo, near Bambari, on 15 October, killing at least 11 people. On 28 October clashes between ex-Séléka and anti-Balaka militias near Bambari resulted in 15 people killed. The following day at least 10 people, including 6 gendarmes and 4 civilians, were killed in an ambush outside Bambari.
Growing tensions in Bria have also resulted in violent conflict. At least 85 civilians were killed and 11,000 displaced between 21 and 25 November during clashes between the Union for Peace in the Central African Republic (UPC) and Popular Front for the Central African Renaissance (FPRC). FRPC forces reportedly targeted ethnic Fulani during house-to-house searches and prevented them from receiving medical care in local hospitals.
The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), which is active in eastern and southern prefectures, has also increased its sporadic attacks during 2016, including abducting and killing civilians.
The crisis in CAR began after the 24 March 2013 overthrow of President François Bozizé by the Séléka rebel alliance. Abuses by the Séléka led to the formation of predominantly Christian and animist “anti-balaka” militias. MINUSCA and an European Union (EU) military assistance mission are presently deployed in the country.
An International Commission of Inquiry for CAR has found the anti-balaka and ex-Séléka armed groups responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The Commission estimated that 80 percent of CAR’s Muslim population had been driven out of the country during the 2013-2015 crisis and concluded that crimes committed by the anti-balaka constituted a “policy of ethnic cleansing” against CAR’s Muslims.
There are currently more than 385,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in CAR and over 451,000 refugees in neighboring countries. An estimated 2.3 million people – half the population – remain in urgent need of humanitarian assistance.
Hostilities between anti-balaka militias, ex-Séléka rebels, armed Muslim self-defense groups and other armed groups, as well as between international peacekeepers and these groups, continue to pose a threat to civilians. Violence between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturalist communities in the transhumance corridor also continues. The LRA has exploited the security vacuum to expand its operations in the remote south and east.
The largely peaceful elections and political transition represent important progress, but the underlying conflict in CAR remains unresolved. Armed groups continue to exercise control over large parts of the country. The fragmentation of the ex-Séléka and anti-balaka is proving challenging for Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programs.
National security forces have previously been implicated in serious violations of international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law (IHRL) and remain unable to repel major attacks by various armed groups without the assistance of international forces. Furthermore, armed groups continue to attack humanitarian workers and obstruct access to aid.
MINUSCA also continues to face critical capacity gaps that impede its ability to uphold its mandate to protect civilians throughout CAR. Allegations of sexual abuse of children by MINUSCA peacekeepers have undermined confidence in the UN. The conclusion of Operation Sangaris, resulting in the removal of 2,000 French troops, on 31 October presents additional operational challenges for MINUSCA. Attacks on MINUSCA by armed groups constitute war crimes.
The CAR government requires sustained international assistance to uphold its Responsibility to Protect.
Following the deadly surge in violence during late 2013, the international community intensified its response to the crisis in CAR, including by passing six UN Security Council (UNSC) resolutions between October 2013 and April 2015 that emphasized the interim government’s responsibility to protect the civilian population.
On 27 January 2016 the UNSC passed Resolution 2262, renewing the sanctions regime and arms embargo. On 7 March the UNSC added Joseph Kony and the LRA to the sanctions list. On 26 July the UNSC passed Resolution 2303, renewing the mandate of MINUSCA until 15 November 2017 and recalling the primary responsibility of CAR’s authorities to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity.
The UN Deputy Secretary-General, Jan Eliasson, visited CAR from 1 to 2 November and discussed with the government the need for a reconciliation process and stronger DDR efforts.
On 17 November international donors pledged more than $2 billion to fund the CAR government’s national plan for reconciliation and rebuilding.
On 25 November the UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, Adama Dieng, issued a statement following the violence in Bria, raising concern about reports of ethnic targeting of Fulani and calling upon the government to uphold its responsibility to protect.
The government should prioritize accountability for mass atrocity crimes and other violations and abuses of IHRL and IHL, including through cooperation with the International Criminal Court. Urgent financial and logistical resources are also needed to establish the hybrid Special Criminal Court for CAR.
MINUSCA must forcibly disarm groups that continue to threaten populations, particularly near Kaga-Bandoro. MINUSCA must ensure it deploys in adequate numbers to all areas where vulnerable civilians lack sufficient protection, including in remote areas affected by the LRA. MINUSCA must improve its capacity to anticipate and rapidly respond to emerging security threats.
The international community must hold atrocity perpetrators accountable, including through expanding UNSC sanctions to target those responsible for recent violence.